The App’s Cloud Component cannot be changed and is operated by the App Operator
- default assumption of many App Developers and development tools, so easy to develop for;
- organizationally simple.
- typically lacks transparency about where and when personal data is leaves the App User's smartphone;
- the App User has only the choice of not using the App when they do not trust the App Operator’ operations or the App Operator changes their business model or other aspects of their operations. This may cause App Users to lose access to data they consider valuable.